M. Murataliev. Epoch of Scythians and Epos “Manas”


On existence of epoch of Scythians we know. Encyclopedia The Hutchinson writes: “The Scythians, area northward from Black sea between Carpathian mountains and Don river, inhabited by Scythians in 12-1 BC[1] ”. However who is such Scythians? Existed under this name some folks or tribes? Lev Gumilev writes that “Scythians – a Greek heel name different tribe groups in Black sea[2] . “The Father of history” Gerodot /Ἡρόδοτος / names there: these are Savromaths, Bydins, Fiscagets, Nevrics, Ehgipehs[3] ”. However he names their “Scythians”. Following Gerodot have named these five groups tribes “Scythians” Gippokrat, Strabon, Lukian, Soliyskiy, Aristotel too. Besides famous “Greeks” named their “sckit” or “skythian[4] ”.

So has appeared word etnonim /έθνος όνυμα / “Scythians”. That Hunny and Hun know all world, but Scythians know only west leave. Because the of the famous Greeks mistake. They have translated a notion free “Scythians folk”, hereunder having distorted history. “Fourth book” by Gerodot is – a single source on Scythians. This is while affording information about the most ancient history of folk of the Europe-Asia. Also it is the first of all for the history of the Turkic world. Receipt of Scythians on the West complies with the beginning of new civilizations in the Europe. This period lasted “near the of ages during which on the territory of  East Europe, Central Asia and South Siberia have occurred a changing a world value[5] ”.

Appears a question – appropriately to compare the text of “Manas” with the historian of Scythians, which lived before our era? But heroes of epos are reflection of worldly – wise kyrgyzian sons which were living in 7 AD at the best, when existed “Great Kyrgyz power” in Central Asia. “To serve a history source, language itself must become a subject of histories[6] ”. Such subjects we find in the text of epos “Manas”. In other words, anonymous compilers of first lines this great epos took their own prototypes from ancient mode life, described from tribesmen – Scythians. Are many such material in this text, for this reason I has decided to take epos as a history source. Following the writer Jacob Grimm who said: “our language is also our history[7] ”.

To let’s once again demand itself – who is these Scythians? Whence they have undertaken? If take in attention a mistake the Father of history, then the Scythians are a tribe not at all west origin. Well-known that in Central Asia in antiquity has appeared a strong oikumene / οἰκουμένη / under the general name Hunny. They were a Turkic origin and lead rove mode – life. From they will go Huns. And in the time of Hunny, and in the time of Huns the part of these folk left on the west. It is known in histories as “Great transmigration of folk”. Having Subordinated row of German and the others tribes, Hunny have led a powerful alliance of tribes. After the death of Attila /453y/ alliance of tribes has been disintegrated[8] ”.

If second invasion of Turkic-speaking peoples folks on Europe is more and less known, the first their transmigration is nearly not studied. Obviously that Scythians were from number of pranks of first wave of migrants from Central Asia and Ural.

Professor F.G. Bergman writes: “In that epoch, when Scythians small peoples together with Aryan folks for the first time have appeared on ground of history, they lived in the country, which now is identified Turkistan. They go on: part of on the south and on the east, other – on the north and on the west[9] ”. In the opinion of other famous scientist, our contemporary, professor to the MGU A.P. Smirnov: “Scythians come from the Central Asia in 7 and can be at the end of 8 BC[10] ”. Then “on the territory of Kazakhstan, Central Asia and Altai dwelt tribes, formed many tribe ethnic culture community. Exactly this ambience was a source and first native land Scythians; exactly thence they come to the East Europe[11] ”.

Now a few word about ethnonym “Kyrgyz”. “First mentioning of word “Kyrgyz” is met in Chinese history compositions and is refereed to 20 BC[12] ”. On the Scythians by L. Gumilev the tree of Turkic with ancient temporary before 5 BC forms 29 ethnic names. They are Dinlinn, Hunny, Kyrgyz, Chianbe, Chidi, Jundi, Kipchac, Giangun, Juzchi, Sack, Kijn, Dy, Chja, Sarmat, Hun, Alan, Ashina, Turk, Tele, Usun, Jujan and et so on[13] . From them now there only names “Kyrgyz” and “Turk”. The rest of 27 folks disappeared. On assimilated with other folk, the others, steels forming part related it folk. So, in Kyrgyz folk are such tribes as Kipchac, Usun, Saiack, Alan, and Turk, Teles catch of which in antiquities formed separate folk. In epos “Manas” is surrounded with forty legendary heroes, representatives of these folks. Herewith, every hero names himself pranks that or other tribe, and all of present one folk – ‘kyrgyz’.

About life of west Scythians speak archeological ancient burial mounds, “Besshatirski tomb consists of burial mounds with complex architectural erecting from the stone sewer and underground moves. One of the burial mounds had diameter 52 meters, height near 9 meters. Underneath three stone covering at a rate of ground was installed wooden building – a tsarist funeral camera. Funeral camera was in the manner of the rectangle 3, 6 and 3, 3 meters and height 4 meters. In this camera lead rather narrow corridor. After funeral the corridor was bound by stones[14] ”.

Now this archeological opening compare with the text of “Manas” where described a burial mound of legendary hero. Kanikey – a wife of Manas has hired seven hundred strength men folk of Urum and forced their cut through rock in Echkilik a tomb for hero. Only one person could pass through the entry, however inwardly possible was place six thousand sheep. For strengthen ceiling was installed eighty props. In the floor were chopped outlet channel down to dripping from the ceiling water did not sap basis. For illuminating of tomb have installed eighty lit from the particular stone. Deathbed Manas was made from gild. On it put coverlet from expensive fabric, sprinkled their ash of juniper. After funeral the hero, entry was bound by stones[15] . As seen, images ancient burial mounds much remind each other. Not knowing that distant from us temporary, customs, not possible from a similar funeral premises for the hero.

There is one more example from ancient Kyrgyz traditions temporary great Manas.

There is a chapter in epos, denoted funeral repasts of comrade Manas. It is identified “Funeral repasts on Cokcotey”. When Cockotey was dead his son Bokmurun has arrived to consult with Manas. But he gave him such advice:

“The our khan Cokcotey’s standard,

Let you attach it to pole,

You can’t buried our alderman, keep the body in home,

Until time is running out exactly forty days[16]

Naturally, hero speaks so following custom of limits, rater then on its considerations. Such custom describes Gerodot beside Scythians.

When any Scythians who is not tsar dies, the nearest relatives place the corpse on cart and carry on the whole country to friends. All friends make an accompany regaling. And they carry dead body on the country forty days thereby, but will then betray a burying[17] ”.

On the home level beside Kyrgyz until now exists a tradition “чай ичирю” /feed/. In the house where person dies food doesn’t prepare on several days. Near relatives and neighbors come to this house with forehand the prepared by the food to feed that, beside who grief. Arrive even relatives and close people from afar. So lasts before forty days and only after this is considered unnecessary.

Gerodot writes: “when beside Scythians dies a tsar, raise his corpse on cart. First its cover a wax: afterwards cut a belly calm: then clean it’s and fill crushed incense und seeds are keeper, celery, and anise. Afterwards belly once mends[18] ”.

This way of embalming is described “Manas”. Plants keeper, celery, and anise turns out to be, growing in mountains Kyrgyzstan and on Altai. Within forty days – term without giving a body of decayed khan Cokcotey ground, it’s embalmed.

“Commanding saver scrape,

Commanding koumiss[19] wash…[20]

In other words, previously then embalm it is necessary was extract the whole spoiling part-flesh to leave only bone, but after wash with koumiss to is saved more long.

Again wants to notice that hero of epos “Manas” and ancient folk from the five tribes lead a similar life. This speaks that product appeared on mouths beside Kyrgyz bards in deep antiquities.

In our days great scientific Gerodot was about 2500. But how much was Scythians, when father of history created material on them?

In epos “Manas”, cither as beside other folk, subject of religion will be returned greater place. In spite of that main religion at Kyrgyz is Islam, in product its influence small. This too points to an age of great epos. In subject parallel are developed aside from the Islam line and totemism line and fetishism.

At a difficult minute great Manas, either as comrade asked helps beside Teniri, Mountains, Skies, Ground and specters of limits. Heroes Manas, Koshoi, Chubak, Syrgak, Bakai and other warriors more are faithful to sword.

“We are together blade of damask licked…[21]

It epos this looked so. One kept sword before the person of other, but other bit blades of sword. After all this repeated another. This was considered by the vow on faithfulness and friendship before the weapon-god. At last the aspect a linguistic.

Such a marvel is met at Scythians.

We are reading. Gerodot writes: “Scythians honor only following Greece gods. On Scythian language Gestia identified Tabiti. Zeus – Papey. Gaia – Api. Apollo – Goitosir. Aphrodite – Arimpasa. Poseidon – Fagimasad[22] ». That escape is in these words? I am hurry to report that all six names of Greece deities, remade by Scythians, all translated into Kyrgyz language.

Word Tabiti means a/ drill, b/ soul rests upon something, have desire,

Word Papey means a/ grandparent, b/ older,

Word Api means a/ native mother, b/ senior sister,

Word Goitosir means that why leaves on flock of sheep,

Word Arimpasa means wench,

Word Fagimasad means I will make happy.

So I hear from these ancient words today.

After appears a question of rights Gerodot, having said that “Scythians honor Greece anthropomorphous gods?” After all “beside Scythians were not develop manlike gods [23]”.  They didn’t reflect them to not irritate a strong neighbor. Nomads could not and did not want to perceive high gods of cultural higher Greece. Inborn warriors, they saw gods in subjects of wailing everyday life, and exactly so they honored a Greece god of war Ares, but protectors of arts and facilities named: Zeus – Limit, Gaia – A native mother, Apollo, have transformed in a usual shepherd, Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty – in the Wench, Poseidon, goddess of rules Sea – in the Bring happiness.

In summary, these examples are possible to speak.

A/ That ancient kyrgyzes were contemporaries of Hunny and Scythians.

B/ either as above named folk lead rove lifestyle.

C/ That Scythian live from “Histories in nine books” by Gerodot comparable with epos “Manas”.

D/ Both events a cult of traditions and their semantic side identical.

This is proof that in antiquities like custom existed both beside Kyrgyz and beside Scythian. But fest of all this points to related relationships these two the most ancient people.

[1] The Hutchinson Encyclopedia, М., 1995. С.500

[2] Лев Гумилев. Т.9., М., 1997. С.253.

[3] Геродот. История в девяти книгах. Л., 1972. С.254.

[4] Гиппократ. «О воде, воздухе и местностях». М., 1947 №2. С. 296.

[5] А.П. Смирнов. Скифы. М., 1966. С.5.

[6] В.И. Абаев. Осетинский язык и фольклор. М.-Л., 1949.С.11.

[7] Ibid. P.11.

[8] СЭС. М., 1979. С.355.

[9] Ф.Г. Бергман. «Скифы, предки германских и славянских народов». Галле, 1860. С.2.

[10] А.П. Смирнов. Скифы. М., 1966. С. 4.

[11] Ibid. P.89.

[12] Кыргызская диаспора за рубежом. Бишкек., 1992. С.6.

[13] Л. Гумилев. Т.9. С.284.

[14] А.И. Мартынов. Скифо-сибирское культурное – историческое единство. Кемерово, 1980.С.11.

[15] Манас. Кара соз турундогу баяндама. Ф., 1986. С. 139.

[16] Манас. Кн. 3. М., 1990. С. 275.

[17] Геродот. Мельпомена. Л., 1972. С.205.

[18] Ibid. P.204.

[19] Koumiss /кымыз/ — Sour milk drinks of mare milk.

[20] Манас. Кн. 3. М., 1990ю С.251.

[21] Манас. Кн.4. 1995. С.728.

[22] Геродот. Мельпомена. Л., 1972. С. 201

[23] Ibid. P. 202.

M. Murataliev. Epoch of Scythians and Epos “Manas”: 2 комментария

  1. Dear M. Murataliev,

    Thank you for telling us about Kyrgyz roots. I believe in such a crucial time for Kyrgyz, they must wake up and not only survive but try to reborn theirs tradition, remember theirs roots. It will be very dramatic if people with such a great history behind them will be dissapear. I wish you an inspiration and a succes in your work. Let spirit of Generous Manas to lead you. Amen.

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